Materials

Silicon

Silicon is the 2nd most abundant element in the earth's crust, in a virtually endless supply and is the main material forming cells solar panels.

 

Our suppliers/manufacturers procure high purity polysilicon from a significant portion of its feedstock. In addition to using this high purity polysilicon directly from silicon manufacturers, our manufacturers have developed proprietary formulas to utilize silicon that is otherwise discarded by other solar and electronics manufacturers. This unique capability allows our manufacturers to have access to a broader amount of feedstock than other companies. They test and categorize reclaimable silicon raw materials based on their technical properties. These reclaimable silicon raw materials then undergo mechanical grinding and chemical cleaning before they are mixed using our proprietary formula. Their ability to mix the materials in the right proportion is critical to the production of high-quality silicon ingots.

Ingot

To produce monocrystalline silicon ingots, silicon raw materials are first melted in a quartz crucible in the in an oven with directional solidification system. Then, a thin crystal seed is dipped into the melted material to determine the crystal orientation. The seed is rotated and then slowly extracted from the melted material which solidifies on the seed to form a single crystal. The resulting ingots blocks consist of multiple smaller crystals, unlike the single crystal monocrystal.

Wafer

Efficient wafer sawing requires the careful optimization of numerous variables, including machine speed, wire tension, slurry composition, and temperature level.

 

After the ingots are inspected, monocrystalline ingots are squared by squaring machines. Through high-precision cutting techniques, the squared ingots are then sliced into wafers by wire saws using steel wires and silicon carbon power. To produce multicrystalline wafers, multicrystalline ingots are first cut into pre-determined sizes. After a testing process, the multicrystalline ingots are cropped and the usable parts of the ingots are sliced into wafers by wire saws by the same high-precision cutting techniques as used for slicing monocrystalline wafers. After being inserted into frames, the wafers go through a cleansing process to remove debris from the previous processes, and are then dried. Wafers are inspected for contaminants and packed and transferred to our solar cell production facilities.

Cell

To manufacture solar cells, the crystalline silicon wafer is used as the base substrate. After cleaning and texturing the surface, emitter is formed through a diffusion process. The front and back sides of the wafer are then isolated using the plasma etching technique, the oxide formed during the diffusion process is removed and thus an electrical field is formed. We then apply an anti-reflective coating to the surface of the cell using plasma enhanced chemical vapours to enhance the absorption of sunlight. The front and back sides of the cell is screen printed with metallic inks and the cell then undergoes a fire treatment in order to preserve its mechanical and electrical properties. The cell is tested and classified according to its parameter.

Module

Module assembly involves electrically connecting strings of cells, laminating the strings in a durable, clear polymer material with special properties called EVA, and protecting the cells from physical stress by enclosing the laminate in an aluminum frame with a glass front and normally with a backing material known as TPT, a combination of Tedlar and Polyesther. A junction box and a set of connection cables on the back of a module allow the easy connection of one module to another at the site of installation.

System

Systems installation covers a broad range of possible PV applications, from utility-scale PV, to commercial and residential rooftops, to building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV), to off-grid industrial and residential systems in rural areas. Each category presents its own unique challenges for cost-effectively deploying PV solar modules.

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Manufacturing